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The collapse of the Jin Empire quickly followed these revolts. Large manorial estates were self-sufficient and isolated from the wider market. These estates were self-contained economies that practised agriculture, herding, forestry, fishing, and the production of handicraft goods. Exchange was no longer carried out through money, but barter. Following the economic revival after the unification of the Sui, the manorial economy again declined.
Fu Jian repaired irrigation projects constructed under Han and Jin, and set up hotels and stations for traders every 20 kilometres. Under Fu Jian's rule, trade and agriculture were significantly revived, and many nations again sent tribute to Fu Jian's court. This battle is considered one of the most important in Chinese history because it preserved Chinese civilization from the danger of destruction.
Meanwhile, the legitimate Jin dynasty had fled to the south, then an undeveloped periphery of the Chinese Empire. Jin rulers attempted to develop this region as a centre of rule and as a base for the reconquest of their homeland. The migration of northern people stimulated the southern economy, allowing it to rival the northern economy. Improved agricultural techniques introduced to the south increased production and a market economy survived as Jin rulers enforced laws. The improvement of the southern economy can be seen later when it financed Liu Yu's expeditions to recover Sichuan and most of the Chinese heartland from the barbarian states of the north.
The Southern and Northern Dynasties , despite constant war, largely recovered from the Wu Hu uprising. The early part of the era saw the greater part of China reunified by the native Liu Song dynasty, whose northern border extended to the Yellow River. The Liu Song founder and general, Liu Yu , reclaimed much of China's heartland, conquering most of the states that the Wu Hu had established in the 4th century, excluding the Xianbei state of Northern Wei.
Under his son, China witnessed a brief period of prosperity during the Yuanjia era. However, a later Xianbei invasion once more confined the Chinese dynasties to the territories south of the Huai River. In , the Sui dynasty restored native rule to northern China and reunified the country. The Yuanjia era, inaugurated by Liu Yu and his son, Wen Ti , was a period of prosperous rule and economic growth, despite ongoing war.
Emperor Wen Ti was known for his frugal administration and his concern with the welfare of the people. Although he lacked the martial power of his father, he was an excellent economic manager. He reduced taxes and levies on peasants and encouraged them to settle in areas that had been reconquered by his father. He reduced the power of wealthy landowners and increased the taxable population. He also enacted a system of reviewing the performance of civil servants. As a result of his policies, China experienced an era of prosperity and economic recovery.
During the Yuanjia era, the Chinese developed the co-fusion process of steel manufacturing, which involved melting cast iron and wrought iron together to create steel, increasing the quality and production volume of Chinese iron. Towards the end of Wen Ti's reign, the Xianbei state of Northern Wei began to strengthen, and decisively defeated an attempt by Wen Ti to destroy it.
Following this victory, Wei launched repeated incursions into the northern provinces, finally capturing them in The economic prosperity of southern China continued after Liu Song's fall and was greatest during the succeeding Liang dynasty , which briefly reconquered the North with 7, troops under the command of general Chen Qingzhi. The Liang emperor, Wu Ti , gave a grant of million coins to Buddhist monasteries, indicating the amount of wealth present in the south. It was recorded that during his reign, the city of Nanjing had a population of up to 1.
After the Xianbei conquest of Northern China, it experienced an economic recovery under the Northern Wei that was even greater than the prosperous era of Yuanjia. This came mostly under the rule of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei , who introduced several reforms designed to further sinify Northern Wei, which included banning the Xianbei language and customs and promoting Chinese law, language and surnames.
A new agricultural system was introduced; in the equal-field system, the state rented land to the peasant labourers for life, reclaiming it after the tenant's death. Peasants also received smaller, private plots that could be inherited. Cattle and farm tools were also rented or sold to peasants.
The Disintegration of the World
The state also introduced the Fubing system , where soldiers would farm as well as undergoing military training. This military system was used until the Tang dynasty, and empowered Han Chinese, who comprised the majority of the army. In addition, Xiaowen strengthened the state's control over the provinces by appointing local officials rather than relying on local landowners, and paying officials with regular salaries. The capital was moved to Luoyang, in the centre of the North China Plain , which revitalised the city and the surrounding provinces.
Under Emperor Xiaowen, the taxable population was an estimated 30 million, which surpassed that under the Jin.
After Xiaowen's rule, Northern Wei's economy began to deteriorate, and famines and droughts undermined Wei rule. From onwards, conservative Xianbei noblemen dominated the north and reversed much of Xiaowen's reforms, setting up their own regimes and warring against each other. The Sui dynasty was established over the Northern Zhou , whose throne was usurped by Yang Jian in Yang Jian quickly enacted a series of policies to restore China's economy. His reunification of China marked the creation of what some historians call the 'Second Chinese Empire', spanning the Sui, T'ang and Northern Song dynasties.
Despite its brevity, the Sui reunified China, and its laws and administration formed the basis of the later Tang, Song and Ming dynasties. Sui dynasty China had a population of about 45 million at its peak. Chen, which ruled the south, was weak compared to Sui and its ruler was incompetent and pleasure-loving. South China also had a smaller population than the north. After eight years of preparation, Sui armies marched on and defeated Chen in , reunifying China and prompting a recovery in the Chinese economy.
The Sui continued to use the equal-field system introduced by Northern Wei. Every able-bodied male received 40 mou of freehold land and a lifetime lease of 80 mou of land, which was returned to the state when the recipient died. Even women could received a lifetime lease of 40 mou of land which was returned to the state upon her death. The Sui government charged three "Shi" of grain each year.
Peasants were required to perform 20 days of labour for the state per year, but those over 50 could instead pay a small fee. Yang Ti was an ambitious ruler who immediately undertook many projects, including the building of the Grand Canal and the reconstruction of the Great Wall. Thousands of forced labourers died while building the projects, and eventually women were required to labour in the absence of men. Sui Yang Ti also launched a series of unsuccessful campaigns against Goguryeo.
These campaigns negatively impacted the image of the dynasty, while his policies drove the people to revolt. Agrarian uprisings and raids by the Gokturks became common. In , Yang Ti was assassinated and the Sui dynasty ended. The Tang dynasty was another golden age, beginning in the ruins of the Sui. By , the Tang had conquered the powerful Gokturk Khagnate, preventing threats to China's borders for more than a century. A series of strong and efficient rulers, beginning with the founder and including a woman, expanded the Tang Empire to the point that it rivalled the later Yuan, Ming and Qing.
The Tang was a period of rapid economic growth and prosperity, seeing the beginnings of woodblock printing. Tang rulers issued large amounts of currency to facilitate trade and distributed land under the equal-field system. The population recovered to and then surpassed Han levels, reaching an estimated 80 million. Emperor Taizong of Tang , the second ruler of the dynasty, is regarded as one of the greatest rulers in Chinese history.
Under his rule, China progressed rapidly from the ruins of a civil war to a prosperous and powerful nation. His reign is called the Zhenkuan era. Taizong reduced conscript labour requirements and lowered taxes; in addition, he was careful to avoid undertaking projects that might deplete the treasury and exhaust the strength of the population. Under his reign, a legal code called the Code of Tang was introduced, moderating the laws of the Sui. During Taizong's reign and until the An Shi Rebellion, the Chinese Empire went through a relatively peaceful period of economic development.
Taizong and his son's conquest of the Gokturk, Xueyantue, Gorguryeo and other enemy empires ensured relative peace for China. Control over the western provinces of China reopened the Silk Road, allowing trade between China and the regions to its west to flourish. Tang armies repeatedly intervened in the western regions to preserve this state of peace and prosperity.
The equal-field system did not allow large land transactions and thus during the early Tang estates remained small. The Tang government managed the economy through the bureaucratic regulation of markets, limiting the times where they could exchange goods, setting standards for product quality, and regulating prices of produce. During the Tang, the taxation system was based on the equal-field system, which equalised wealth among the farmers.
The tax burden of peasants was based on population per household, rather than the value of property. The peasant was eligible for 20 days' conscripted labour; if he defaulted he was obliged to pay 3 Chi of cloth per day missed. The Tang government operated a huge handicraft industry, separate from the private handicraft industry that served the majority of the population.
The public handicraft industry provided the Tang government, army and nobility with various products. The government's handicraft industries retarded the growth of the private sector which did not develop rapidly until after the Anshi Rebellion, when the Tang government's interference in the economy and the size of its government handicraft industries drastically decreased.
After this era, the Tang dynasty went into decline. Emperor Xuanzong's reign ended with the Arab victory at Talas and the An Shi Rebellion , the first war inside China in over years, led by a Sogdian general named An Lushan who used a large number of foreign troops. The cities of Luoyang and Chang'an were reduced to ruins. After the war, the Tang central government never recovered its former power, and local generals became independent of Tang rule.
These generals wielded enormous power, passed on their titles by heredity, collected taxes, and raised their own armies. The weakened Tang government was forced to abolish many of its regulations and interventions after the rebellion; this unintentionally stimulated trade and commerce in Tang China, which reached an apogee in the early 9th century. The equal-field system, which had formed the basis of agriculture for the past two and a half centuries, began to collapse after the An Shi Rebellion.
The equal-field system had relied on the state having large amounts of land, but state landholdings had decreased as they were privatised or granted to peasants. Landowners perpetually enlarging their estates exacerbated the collapse. The Fubing system, in which soldiers served the army and farmed on equal-field land was abolished and replaced with the Mubing system, which relied on a volunteer and standing army. In , the Tang government discontinued the equal field system and reorganised the tax system, collecting taxes based on property value twice a year, in spring and autumn.
Woodblock printing began to develop during the 8th and 9th centuries. This grew out of the huge paper industry that had emerged since the Han. Woodblock printing allowed the rapid production of many books, and increased the speed at which knowledge spread. The first book to be printed in this manner, with a production date, was the Jin Gang Jin , a Buddhist text printed in ,  but the hand-copying of manuscripts still remained much more important for centuries to come.
Although the economy recovered during the 9th century, the central government was weakened. The most pressing issue was the government's salt monopoly , which raised revenue after the equal-field system collapsed and the government could no longer collect land tax effectively. After the An Shi Rebellion, the Tang government monopolised salt to raise revenue; it soon accounted for over half the central government's revenues. During the reign of emperors Shi and Yi, private salt traders were executed, and the price of salt was so high that many people could not afford it.
Eventually, private salt traders allied and rebelled against the Tang army. The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms was a period of warfare and disruption. After , the Tang government effectively disintegrated into several small states in the south, while the north saw a series of short-lived dynasties and barbarian invasions.
A key event of the era was the conquest of North China by the Shatuo Turks. During their rule, the Shatuo gave the vital Sixteen Prefectures area, containing the natural geographical defences of North China and the eastern section of the Great Wall, to the Khitan , another barbarian people. This effectively left Northern China defenceless against incursions from the north, a major factor in the later fall of the Song dynasty. The Shatuo and Khitan invasions severely disrupted economic activity in the north and displaced economic activity southwards, and native Chinese rule was not restored until the Later Zhou dynasty, the Song's precursor.
The southern provinces remained relatively unaffected by the collapse. The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was largely one of continued prosperity in these regions. In , Zhao Kuangyin led a coup which established the sixth dynasty in fifty years. The Song dynasty saw a steep economic rise of China. The economy underwent large increases in manufacturing output. Overseas trade flourished under the Ming dynasty. Investment, capital, and commerce were liberalised as technology advanced and the central state weakened.
Government manufacturing industries were privatised. The emergence of rural and urban markets, where production was geared towards consumption, was a key development in this era. China's growing wealth in this era lead to the loss of martial vigour; the era involved two periods of native rule, each followed by periods of alien rule. By the end of the isolationist Manchu Qing dynasty — , China's development slowed, falling behind that of the west. The food production grew thanks to more lands being cultivated and to the increasing yields. The production of iron and salt and other commodities also grew in this period.
Thus Song China was the richest country in the world by GPD per capita at the turn of the millennium, by the 14th century parts of Europe caught up with it and the significant gap between China and Europe appeared by the middle of 18th century. In , the Later Zhou general Zhao Kuanyi overthrew his imperial master and established the Song dynasty, the sixth in fifty-three years.
Nineteen years later, he had reunified most of China. This was one of the most prosperous periods in Chinese history. Unlike its predecessors, the monarchy and aristocracy weakened under the Song, allowing a class of non-aristocratic gentry to gain power. The central government withdrew from managing the economy except during Wang Anshi's chancellorship and the Southern Song , provoking drastic economic changes. Technological advances encouraged growth; three of the so-called Four Great Inventions : gunpowder , woodblock printing , and the compass , were invented or perfected during this era.
The population rose to more than million during the Song period. However, the Song eventually became the first unified Chinese dynasty to be completely conquered by invaders. During the 11th century, China developed sophisticated technologies to extract and use coal for energy, leading to soaring iron production. The government regulated several other industries. In order to supply the boom in the iron and other industries, the output of mines increased massively.
Near Bianjing , the Song capital, according to one estimate over one million households were using coal for heating, an indication of the magnitude of coal use. Agriculture advanced greatly under the Song.
The Song government started a series of irrigation projects that increased cultivatable land, and encouraged peasants to cultivate more land. The total area of cultivated land was greatly increased to million mou, a figure unsurpassed by later dynasties. Specialised crops like oranges and sugar cane were regularly planted alongside rice. The income allowed families to afford not only food, but charcoal, tea, oil, and wine. Many Song peasants supplemented their incomes with handicraft work.
New tools, like the Water Wheel , greatly enhanced productivity.
Economic history of China before - Wikipedia
Although most peasants in China were still primarily rice farmers, some farmers specialised in certain crops. For example, Luoyang was known for its flower cultivation; flower prices reached such exorbitant prices that one bulb reached the price of 10, coins. Agricultural organisation also changed. Unlike the Han and Tang, in which agriculture was dominated by self-sufficient farmers, or the pre-Warring States period and era of division period between Han and Tang , which was dominated by aristocratic landowners, during the Song agriculture was dominated by non-aristocratic landowners.
The majority of farmers no longer owned their land; they became tenants of these landowners, who developed the rural economy through investment. This system of agriculture was to continue until the establishment of the People's Republic of China under Mao. During the Song dynasty, the merchant class became more sophisticated, well-respected, and organised.
The accumulated wealth of the merchant class often rivalled that of the scholar-officials who administered the affairs of government. For their organisational skills, Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais state that Song dynasty merchants:. In large cities, merchants were organised into guilds according to the type of product sold; they periodically set prices and arranged sales from wholesalers to shop owners. When the government requisitioned goods or assessed taxes, it dealt with the guild heads.
Unfortunately, like their counterparts in Europe, these guilds restricted economic growth through collaboration with government to restrict competition. Large privately owned enterprises dominated the market system of urban Song China. There was a large black market , which grew after the Jur'chen conquest of North China in Around , black marketeers smuggled some 70 to 80 thousand cattle. There were many successful small kilns and pottery shops owned by local families, along with oil presses, wine -making shops, and paper-making businesses.
Song abolition of trade restrictions greatly aided the economy. Commerce increased in frequency and could be conducted anywhere, in contrast to earlier periods where trade was restricted to the 'Fang' and 'Shi' areas. In all the major cities of the Song dynasty, many shops opened. Often, shops selling the same product were concentrated into one urban area. For example, all the rice shops would occupy one street, and all the fish shops another.
Although the Song dynasty saw some large enterprises, the majority of enterprises were small. Overseas commerce also prospered with the invention of the compass and the encouragement of Song rulers. The Song-era Chinese could conduct large amounts of overseas trade, bringing some merchants great fortune.
The accumulated wealth of merchants often rivalled that of the scholar-officials who administered the affairs of government. The prosperous Song economy resulted in an increase in the minting of currency. By , the output of copper currency reached 6 billion coins a year, compared to 5. Paper receipts of deposit first appeared in the 10th century, but the first officially sponsored bills were introduced in Sichuan Province,  where the currency was metallic and extremely heavy.
Although businesses began to issue private bills of exchange, by the midth century the central government introduced its paper money, produced using woodblock printing and backed by bronze coins. The Song government had also been amassing large amounts of paper tribute. Each year before , the prefecture of Xinan modern Xi-xian, Anhui alone sent 1,, sheets of paper in seven different varieties to the capital at Kaifeng. However, a lack of standards caused face values to wildly fluctuate.
A nationwide standard paper currency was not produced until , two years before the Southern Song's fall. In , Wang Anshi, whose ideas were similar to the modern welfare state , became chancellor. Believing that the state must provide for the people, and pressed by the need for revenues to wage an irredentist war against the Xi Xia and Liao , he initiated a series of reforms. These reforms included nationalising industries such as tea, salt and liquor, and adopting a policy of directly transporting goods in abundance in one region to another, which Wang believed would eliminate the need for merchants.
Other policies included a rural credit program for peasants, the replacement of corvee labour with a tax, lending peasants military horses for use in peacetime, compulsory military training for civilians, and a "market exchange bureau" to set prices. These policies were extremely controversial, especially to Orthodox Confucians who favoured laissez faire, and were largely repealed after Wang Anshi's death, except during the reign of Emperor Huizong. A second, more serious attempt to intervene in the economy occurred in the late 13th century, when the Song dynasty suffered from fiscal problems while trying to defend themselves against Mongol invasions.
The Song chancellor Jia Sidao attempted to solve the problem through land nationalisation, a policy that was heavily opposed and later withdrawn. The prosperity of the Song was interrupted by the invasion of Jur'chen Jin in After a successful alliance with the Jin in which the Song destroyed its old enemy the Khitan, the Jin attacked the Song and sacked its capital in Kaifeng.
Millions of Chinese fled Jur'chen rule to the South, which the Song dynasty still held. Due to the new military pressure of the Jur'chens, the Southern Song massively increased the tax burden to several times of that of the Northern Song. The Southern Song maintained an uneasy truce with the Jin until the rise of the Mongols, with whom Song allied to destroy the Jin in However, a flood of the Yellow River, coupled with Mongol attacks, eventually forced the Song to withdraw. Seeking to conquer China, the Mongol Empire launched a series of attacks on the Song.
Song resistance ended at the Battle of Yamen , in which the last Song emperor drowned with the remnants of his navy. The Mongol Yuan dynasty was the first foreign dynasty to rule the whole of China. As the largest khanate in the Mongol Empire, the emperors of Yuan had nominal authority over the other three Mongol Empires. This period of Pax Mongolica stimulated trade. However, millions of Chinese died because of the Mongol conquest.
In their conquest of China, particularly the north under Jur'chen Jin, the Mongols resorted to scorched earth policies, destroying entire provinces. Mongol forces carried out massacres in cities they captured, and one Khan proposed that all Chinese under Mongol rule be killed and their lands turned to pasture,  but was persuaded against this by his minister Yelu Chucai , who proposed that taxing the region's inhabitants was more advantageous than killing them.
Kublai Khan , after becoming ruler of China, extended the Grand Canal , connecting the Yellow and Yangtze rivers, to the capital, Beijing. This eased transportation between the south, now the hub of economic activity, and Beijing. This enhanced Beijing's status, it having formerly been a peripheral city, and was important to later regimes' decisions to have it remain the capital. The Yuan Government revolutionised the economy by introducing paper currency as the predominant circulating medium. Chinese paper money was guaranteed by the State and not by the private merchant or private banker.
The concept of banknotes was not brought up in the world ever since until during the 13th century in Europe, with proper banknotes appearing in the 17th century. The original notes during the Yuan dynasty were restricted in area and duration as in the Song dynasty, but in the later course of the dynasty, facing massive shortages of specie to fund their ruling in China, began printing paper money without restrictions on duration.
Chinese paper money was therefore guaranteed by the State and not by the private merchant or private banker. Kublai and his fellow rulers encouraged trade between China and other Khanates of the Mongol Empire. During this era, trade between China and the Middle East increased, and many Arabs, Persians, and other foreigners entered China, some permanently immigrating. It was during this period that Marco Polo visited China.
Civil service examinations, the traditional way that Chinese elites entered the government, was ended, and most government positions were held by non-Chinese, especially the financial administration of the state. Over-spending by Kublai and his successor caused them to resort to high taxes and extensive state monopolization of major sectors of the economy to fund their extravagant spending and military campaigns, which became a major burden on the Chinese economy.
The most controversial of Kublai's policies, however, was opening the tombs of the Song emperors to gain treasure for the treasury,  and issuing large amounts of notes which caused hyperinflation. These policies greatly conflicted with Confucian ideals of frugal government and light taxation. Many Chinese refused to serve or associate themselves with the Yuan administration, who they viewed as barbarian despots.
During the s, frequent famines, droughts, and plagues encouraged unrest among the Chinese. In , a peasant rebel leader, who claimed he was the descendant of the Song Emperor Huizong , sought to restore the Song by driving out the Mongols. On the other hand, North China became divided between regional warlords who were only nominally loyal to the Yuan. Following the unrest in the late Yuan dynasty, the peasant Zhu Yuanzhang led a rebellion against Mongol rule. Vibrant foreign trade allowed contact to become established between East and West.
Cash crops were more frequently grown, specialised industries were founded, and the economic growth caused by privatisation of state industries resulted in one of the most prosperous periods in Chinese history, exceeding that of the earlier Song dynasty. The Ming was also a period of technological progress, though less so than the earlier Song. Zhu Yuanzhang, also called the Hongwu Emperor , was born of a peasant family and was sympathetic towards peasants. Zhu enacted a series of policies designed to favour agriculture at the expense of other industries. The state gave aid to farmers, providing land and agricultural equipment and revising the taxation system.
In addition, the Ming dynasty reinstated the examination system. Hongwu's successor and grandson, the Jianwen Emperor , was overthrown by his uncle, Zhu Di , called the Yongle Emperor , in a bloody civil war that lasted three years. Zhu Di was more liberally-minded than his father and he repealed many of the controls on gentry and merchants. The expeditions of his eunuch Zheng He created new trade routes. Under Yongle's rule, Ming armies enjoyed continued victories against the Mongols, who were forced to acknowledge him as their ruler.
The Ming government has been described as " The Ming government collected far less revenue than the Song dynasty. Regional tax quotas set up by the Ming emperor Tai-Tzu would be collected, though in practice Ming revenues were markedly lower than the quotas declared. The gentry class won concessions from the government and resisted tax increases.
Throughout the Ming dynasty, the state was constantly underfunded. Ming government allowed those Chinese people who could attain more than mere subsistence to employ their resources mostly for the uses freely chosen by them, for it was a government that, by comparison with others throughout the world then and later, taxed the people at very low levels and left most of the wealth generated by its productive people in the regions where that wealth was produced.
Zhang Juzheng instituted the one whip reform, in which the arbitrary service levy was merged into the land tax. The Ming government's salt monopoly was undermined by private sellers, and had collapsed completely by the 15th century; government officials estimated that three-quarters of salt produced was being sold privately. Zhu Yuanzhang had promoted foreign trade as a source of revenue while he was a rebel, but sharply curtailed this with a series of sea bans haijin once in power.
The sea bans were finally ended in ,  with trade only prohibited to states at war with the throne. Needham estimated the trade between the end of the ban and the end of the dynasty — at about million taels. In addition to small base-metal coins , the Ming issued fiat paper currency as the standard currency from the beginning of the reign until , by which point — like its predecessors — it was suffering from hyperinflation and rampant counterfeiting.
In , Ming notes were trading at about 0. The size of the late Ming economy is a matter of conjecture, with Twitchett claiming it to be the largest and wealthiest nation on earth  and Maddison estimating its per capita GDP as average within Asia and lower than Europe's. And even if we were to try to devise a classification, how could we make it neat and clear-cut? In contrast to Mao, Deng argued that the principal contradiction in Chinese society was the backwardness of the productive forces, further adding that the Party's "central task" over the coming years were to develop them.
The concept of a primary stage of socialism was developed mainly by Xue Muqiao and Su Shaozi. The characteristics of undeveloped socialism are the two forms of public ownership, commodity production and commodity exchange. Capitalists have been basically eliminated as a class but there are still capitalist and bourgeois remnants, even feudal remnants. There also exist quite a few small producers, class differences among workers and peasants The production forces are still not highly developed. And there is not an abundance of products. Therefore, the transition toward socialism has not yet been completed.
The concept of a primary stage of socialism led directly to the reconception of capitalism and socialism's polar-opposite relation to each other. Deng did not believe that the fundamental difference between the capitalist mode of production and the socialist mode of production was central planning versus free markets. He said, "A planned economy is not the definition of socialism, because there is planning under capitalism; the market economy happens under socialism, too. Planning and market forces are both ways of controlling economic activity". The CCP put as an officially atheist institution, prohibits party members from belonging to a religion.
In Marx's eyes, theology had become a bastion protecting the feudal ruling class in Germany.
pubdeonathic.tk Therefore the political revolution had to start by criticizing religion. It was from this perspective that Marx said 'religion is the opium of the people '. The popularity of Falun Gong, and its subsequent banning by state authorities, led to the convening of a three-day National Work Conference for Religious Affairs in , the highest-level gathering on religious affairs in the party's history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Communist Party. Top-ranked secretary : Wang Huning. Chairman : Xi Jinping. Vice-Chairmen :. Office Chief: Ding Xuexiang. Director: Xi Jinping.
Secretary-General: Wang Huning. Deputy Director: Li Keqiang. Office Chief: Liu He. United Front. Scientific Outlook on Development. Harmonious Socialist Society. Constitution Law. Constitution Previous constitutions President list : Xi Jinping. Presidential spouse : Peng Liyuan. Vice-President : Wang Qishan. Secretary-General : Xiao Jie. National Defense Mobilization Commission. Chairman : Li Keqiang. Minister : Wei Fenghe.
Judiciary Law enforcement. Secretary: Guo Shengkun. President : Zhou Qiang. Prosecutor General : Zhang Jun. Minister: Zhao Kezhi State Councilor. Minister: Chen Wenqing. Minister: Fu Zhenghua. Director: Wang Huning. Deputy Director: Huang Kunming. Head: Huang Kunming. Deputy director: Li Keqiang. Director: Xu Lin. Hong Kong Macau. Cross-Strait relations. Foreign relations. Related topics. Administrative divisions Hukou system Family planning Ethnic minorities Communism. Other countries Atlas. Further information: Chinese Marxist philosophy. I am a Marxist. The essence of Marxism is change, [ The Marxist in China today is not a stubborn, dogmatic, and outdated 19th-century old man, but a dynamic, pro-change, young thinker.
We have a flexible approach: if Marx 's words are still applicable, we will use them; for things he did not articulate clearly, we will spell them out; for what he did not say, we will boldly come up with something new. Main articles: Marxism—Leninism and Maoism. Main article: Reform and opening up. Reform and opening up would not have been introduced if not for the work of Deng Xiaoping left , Chen Yun centre and Li Xiannian right. The relationship between Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun and Li Xiannian, was described as "two and a half" in the s; with Chen being considered roughly as Deng's equal, and with Li Xiannian "being half a step behind".
Why do people support us? Because over the last ten years our economy has been developing If the economy stagnated for five years or developed at only a slow rate — for example, at 4 or 5 percent, or even 2 or 3 percent—what effects would be produced? This would be not only an economic problem but also a political one.
Main article: Three Represents. Main article: Scientific Outlook on Development. Western capitalism has suffered reversals, a financial crisis, a credit crisis, a crisis of confidence, and their self-conviction has wavered. Western countries have begun to reflect, and openly or secretively compare themselves against China's politics, economy and path. Main article: People's Democratic Dictatorship. Democracy as interpreted in capitalist societies is the democracy of the bourgeoisie , in reality, it is a monopolized democracy, and is nothing more than multi-party competitive elections, a tripartite separation of powers and a bicameral system.
Our system is the system of the People's Congresses, it is the people's democracy system under the leadership of the Communist Party, we cannot do those Western ways. Further information: People's Democracy Marxism—Leninism. In fact, there is only concrete freedom in the world, and concrete democracy, there is no abstract freedom or abstract democracy. In class struggle societies, where there is the freedom for the exploiting classes to exploit the labouring people, there is no freedom for the labouring people to be free from exploitation.
Where there is bourgeois democracy, there is no democracy of the proletariat or the working people. The state strengthens the building of socialist spiritual civilization by promoting education in high ideals, ethics, general knowledge, discipline and legality, and by promoting the formulation and observance of rules of conduct and common pledges by various sections of the people in urban and rural areas. The state advocates the civic virtues of love for the motherland, for the people, for labor, for science and for socialism.
It conducts education among the people in patriotism and collectivism, in internationalism and communism and in dialectical and historical materialism, to combat capitalist, feudalist and other decadent ideas. Further information: Socialist patriotism. Further information: Economy of China. Main article: Primary stage of socialism. Further information: Socialist market economy. Further information: Religion in China and Marxism and religion. China Copyright and Media.
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